Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap in Canada: The Role of Women’s Under-representation Among Top Earners

This Economic Insights article examines the representation of women in top earnings groups—specifically, the top 0.1%, next 0.9% and next 9% of earners—and the extent to which their under-representation in these groups contributes to the overall gender gap in annual earnings. Trends are documented over almost forty years from 1978 to 2015. The study shows that the under-representation of women in top earnings groups accounts for a substantial and growing share (more than half) of the gender earnings gap. Finally, the article explores the role that gender differences in industry of employment play in the gender earnings gap.

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