Entrepreneurial ecosystem conditions and gendered national-level entrepreneurial activity: a 14-year panel study of GEM

Scholars note the importance of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in promoting new venture activity. Yet to date, limited focus has been given to its impact on female venturing. Accordingly, our study investigates if the entrepreneurial ecosystem influences the prevalence of male and female entrepreneurship over time. We analyze the effect of entrepreneurial ecosystems in 75 countries between 2001 and 2014 on the rates of entrepreneurship for men and women using aggregate data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey and National Expert Survey. Findings indicate that the prevalence in entrepreneurship is highest for women when the entrepreneurial ecosystem features low barriers to entry, supportive government policy towards entrepreneurship, minimal commercial and legal infrastructure, and a normative culture that supports entrepreneurship. Conversely, we find that prevalence rates for men are highest when there is supportive government policy but weak government programs aimed towards business creation.

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