Entrepreneurial orientations of women business founders from a Push/Pull perspective: Canadians versus non-canadians-A multinational assessment

This study is part of a unique, international research effort to determine entrepreneurial orientations of women founders (WF) and their impact on perceived business success. Men founders (MF) and WF from 13 countries were targeted for this study and completed questionnaires addressing their entrepreneurial orientations—necessity/opportunity, business measures and background characteristics. Business founders from Canada were specifically selected as a unique sample, with the aim of spotlighting the Canadian, opportunitydriven model of entrepreneurship and its relatively narrower gender gap, and of learning how to adopt it. Our findings illustrate a multifaceted picture of the relationships between genders, external factors (i.e., push/pull factors), and entrepreneurial orientations. More specifically, the genders’ differential interpretations of push/pull factors into necessity/opportunity orientations affect their perceived level of business success. This study provides support for the Canadian opportunity–driven attitude towards entrepreneurship and their narrower gender gap by exhibiting very few significant differences between the genders in entrepreneurial orientation. Implications of the Canadian model are discussed.

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